"Sizing" is a thin, homogenous coating applied to the surface of fibers during the manufacturing process to protect the filaments during handling, and processing, and also during subsequent compounding and composite processing. On the fiber surface, the sizing plays an important role in determining the properties of the final composite, such as improved adhesion between the fiber and the matrix, mechanical properties, chemical or water resistance, and thermal stability.
Michelman has developed families of film formers, binders, and lubricants formulated specifically for the fiber manufacturing process that address the unique challenges the industry faces. We have solutions for fiberglass, carbon fiber, natural fiber, and specialty fibers in chopped or continuous form.
Fiber producers create their own, unique sizing formulations to deliver the best performance attributes to the fiber. These formulations are composed of water, silane coupling agents (specifically for glass and basalt fiber), film formers in dissolved, emulsified, or dispersed form, and a range of additives or modifiers such as surfactants, plasticizers, anti-static agents, antifoams, and rheology modifiers. These ingredients are carefully mixed together and delivered to the fiber to perfectly match the requirements of the targeted applications. Michelman has developed a range of lubricants, binders, and film formers exclusively formulated for the fiber manufacturing process that deal with the unique challenges faced by the industry.
When it comes to the manufacturing and further processing of fiber, the film former plays an important role in both the fiber's physical characteristics and finished composite properties. It provides improved adhesion and facilitates effective load transfer between the fiber and the matrix polymer, while imparting mechanical properties such as tensile strength, fatigue resistance, and impact resistance. Hundreds of film former dispersions are commercially available, but only a small percentage of them are compatible with other sizing ingredients. Michelman's technology allows customers to tailor the surface chemistry of reinforcement fibers to the chemistry of the matrix resin, thereby optimizing the interfacial adhesion between the polymers and fibers.
Stability is one of the key characteristics that fiber manufacturers take into consideration when selecting raw materials for their sizing formulations. View the graph to the right to see the four major effects of sizing variation on fiber production:
|Sizing Problem||Effect on Fiber|
|Particle size||Changes in Loss on Ignition (LOI)|
|Short shelf-life||Increase in manufacturing downtime|
|PH changes||Gain or loss of sizing pick-up on fiber|
|Foam||Fuzz, changes in LOI, uneven coverage|
Sizing benefits composite performance by optimizing the fiber-polymer interfacial adhesion. Not only does it protect the freshly formed fiber surface from abrasion, prevent fiber breakage at contact points, and preserve chopped bundles of fiber; sizing enhances the performance of a number of mechanical and chemical properties.
Sizing optimizes the processability of fiber. Although sizing is a small percentage of fiber reinforced composites–normally 0.5 - 5% of its weight–it affects the production and the processing of the fiber, and has a significant impact on the interface properties between the fiber surface and the composite matrix.
Hydrosize® film forming dispersions optimize the surface chemistry of reinforcement fibers that are integral to high performance composites. The diverse Hydrosize product range is optimized for a broad range of thermoplastic, thermoset, and very high temperature resin matrices. Hydrosize is applied during the manufacturing process of chopped or continuous strand fiberglass, carbon fiber, and natural fibers and fillers.
|Hydrosize® Carbon 110||Dispersion||34–36||Anionic / Nonionic|
|Hydrosize® Carbon 120||Emulsion||34–36||Anionic / Nonionic|
|Hydrosize® Carbon 210||Dispersion||58–60||Anionic / Nonionic|
|Hydrosize® Carbon 220||Dispersion||58–60||Anionic / Nonionic|
|Hydrosize® Carbon 240||Specialty Dispersion||58–60||Anionic / Nonionic|
|Hydrosize® Carbon 250||Dispersion||55–58||Anionic / Nonionic|
|Hydrosize® Carbon 260||Solution||28–32||Anionic / Nonionic|
|Hydrosize® Carbon 280||Dispersion||28–32||Anionic|
|Hydrosize® Carbon 310||Emulsion||30–33||Anionic / Nonionic|
|Hydrosize® Carbon 410||Solution||10–12|
|Hydrosize® HP3-02||Emulsion||30–33||Anionic / Nonionic|
|Hydrosize® PP2-01||Dispersion||38.5–41||Anionic / Nonionic|
|Hydrosize® PP247||Emulsion||34–36||Anionic / Nonionic|
|Hydrosize® PP270||Emulsion||34.5–35.5||Anionic / Nonionic|
|Hydrosize® PP943||Emulsion||39.5–40.5||Anionic / Nonionic|
|Hydrosize® U1-03||Dispersion||49–52||Anionic / Nonionic|
|Hydrosize® U2-04||Specialty Dispersion||58–60||Anionic / Nonionic|
|Hydrosize® U2022||Dispersion||58–60||Anionic / Nonionic|
|Hydrosize® U2023||Specialty Dispersion||59–61||Anionic / Nonionic|
|Hydrosize® U5-01||Dispersion||55–58||Anionic / Nonionic|
|Hydrosize® U5-02||Dispersion||54–56||Anionic / Nonionic|
|Hydrosize® U6-01||Solution||28–32||Anionic / Nonionic|
|Hydrosize® U7-01||Dispersion||55–59||Anionic / Nonionic|
|Hydrosize® U8-02||Specialty Dispersion||54–56||Anionic / Nonionic|
|Michem® Emulsion 42035A||Emulsion||34.5–35.5||Cationic/ Nonionic|
|Michem® Emulsion 43240||Emulsion||39.5–40.5||Anionic / Nonionic|
|Michem® Emulsion 48625M1||Solution||23.5–26||N/A|
|Michem® Emulsion 91735||Emulsion||34–36||Anionic / Nonionic|
|Michem® Emulsion 93135M||Emulsion||34.5–35.5||Nonionic|
|Michem® Lube 743P||Emulsion||31.5–32.5||Nonionic|
|Michem® Prime 2960||Specialty Dispersion||16.5–17.5||Ammoniated dispersion|
|Michem® Prime 4983R||Specialty Dispersion||24.2–25.4||N/A|
Michelman products make composites stronger by tailoring the surface chemistry of reinforcement fibers to the chemistry of the matrix resin.
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